Handbook of instrumentation and controls

MODUL 1 TEMPERATUR DETECTOR

RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS (RTDs)
Temperature
RTD Construction

THERMOCOUPLES
Thermocouple Construction
Thermocouple Operation

FUNCTIONAL USES OF TEMPERATURE DETECTORS
Functions of Temperature Detectors
Detector Problems
Environmental Concerns .

TEMPERATURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY
Bridge Circuit Construction
Bridge Circuit Operation
Temperature Detection Circuit
Temperature Compensation
MODUL 2 PRESSURE DETECTORS
PRESSURE DETECTORS
Bellows-Type Detectors
Bourdon Tube-Type Detectors
Summary
PRESSURE DETECTOR FUNCTIONAL USES
Pressure Detector Functions
Detector Failure
Environmental Concerns

PRESSURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY
Resistance-Type Transducers
Inductance-Type Transducers
Capacitive-Type Transducers
Detection Circuitry
MODUL 3 LEVEL DETECTORS

LEVEL DETECTORS
Gauge Glass
Ball Float
Chain Float
Magnetic Bond Method
Conductivity Probe Method
Differential Pressure Level Detectors

DENSITY COMPENSATION
Specific Volume
Reference Leg Temperature Considerations
Pressurizer Level Instruments
Steam Generator Level Instrument

LEVEL DETECTION CIRCUITRY
Remote Indication
Environmental Concerns
MODUL 4 FLOW DETECTORS

HEAD FLOW METERS
Orifice Plate
Venturi Tube
Dall Flow Tube
Pitot Tube .

OTHER FLOW METERS
Area Flow Meter
Displacement Meter
Hot-Wire Anemometer
Electromagnetic Flowmeter
Ultrasonic Flow Equipment

STEAM FLOW DETECTION

FLOW CIRCUITRY
Circuitry .
Use of Flow Indication
Environmental Concerns
MODUL 5 POSITION INDICATORS

SYNCHRO EQUIPMENT
Synchro Equipment

SWITCHES
Limit Switches
Reed Switches

VARIABLE OUTPUT DEVICES
Potentiometer
Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)
Summary
POSITION INDICATION CIRCUITRY
Environmental Concerns
MODUL 6 RADIATION DETECTORS
OBJECTIVES
RADIATION DETECTION TERMINOLOGY
Electron-Ion Pair
Specific Ionization
Stopping Power
Summary
RADIATION TYPES
Alpha Particle
Beta Particle
Gamma Ray
Neutron .

GAS-FILLED DETECTOR
Summary
DETECTOR VOLTAGE
Applied Voltage
Summary
PROPORTIONAL COUNTER
MODUL 7 PROCESS CONTROLS

PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
Introduction
Terminology
Automatic Control System
Functions of Automatic Control
Elements of Automatic Control
Feedback Control

CONTROL LOOP DIAGRAMS .
Terminology
Feedback Control System Block Diagram
Process Time Lags
Stability of Automatic Control Systems

TWO POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS
Controllers
Two Position Controller
Example of Two Position Control
Modes of Automatic Control .

PROPORTIONAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control Mode
Proportional Band
Example of a Proportional Process Control System

RESET (INTEGRAL) CONTROL SYSTEMS
Reset Control (Integral)
Definition of Integral Control
Example of an Integral Flow Control System
Properties of Integral Control

PROPORTIONAL PLUS RESET CONTROL SYSTEMS
Proportional Plus Reset
Example of Proportional Plus Reset Control
Reset Windup

PROPORTIONAL PLUS RATE CONTROL SYSTEMS
Proportional-Derivative
Definition of Derivative Control
Example of Proportional Plus Rate Control
Applications

PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
Proportional-Integral-Derivative
Proportional Plus Reset Plus Rate Controller Actions

CONTROLLERS
Controllers
Control Stations
Self-Balancing Control Stations

VALVE ACTUATORS
Actuators
Pneumatic Actuators
Hydraulic Actuators
Electric Solenoid Actuators
Electric Motor Actuators

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